WHAT IS AD?

WHAT IS AD?

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects individuals over 65 years of age. It is characterized by a progressive loss of memory that is due to the loss and dysfunction of brain cells (neurons) in brain areas important for cognition. While the exact cause of AD is unclear, most AD researchers believe the root cause is aggregation of an abnormal protein (called β-amyloid or Aβ) in the brain. Although this aggregation occurs outside of neurons in the form of large diffuse and compact plaques, more and more evidence is pointing to the much smaller oligomeric Aβ aggregates inside neurons as the real culprit causing AD memory loss. The presence of these oligomers inside neurons is an early pathogenic event, occurring before overt signs of memory loss. To our knowledge, there is no known AD therapeutic that has been shown to break-up these Aβ oligomers inside neurons.

AD disease has three stages:

  • Pre-symptomatic:

    No cognitive impairment, but loss/dysfunction of neurons starts to occur. This stage begins 10 or more years before any noticeable memory loss.

  • Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI):

    Modest impairment of short-term (immediate) memory as neuronal loss/dysfunction continues.

  • Alzheimer’s Disease:

    Substantial short-term and long-term memory impairment, with eventual total loss of intellect – all this over the course of 2 to 20 years.

WHO GETS AD?

In 2019, an estimated 6 million Americans have Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), which accounts for 70 percent of all cases of dementia. One in eight people aged 65 and older have Alzheimer’s disease and half of people age 85 and older have AD. Another 5-6 million American have Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which precedes AD. Thus, NeuroEM Therapeutics’ target market in the U.S. currently numbers between 10-11 million Americans.

The AD market is growing rapidly, with the number of U.S. patients expected to triple by 2050. One in three Americans will die with AD, with one new case being diagnosed every 68 seconds. It has recently been estimated that over 500,000 Americans die of Alzheimer’s complications every year, and AD is the third leading cause of death in the U.S. The cost of caring for AD patients today is $200 billion/year and is expected to grow to $1.2 trillion/year by 2050 if an effective treatment is not found. The U.S. market for AD drugs in 2015 was approximately $3 billion – The market could approach $20 billion annually with the approval of a disease-modifying therapeutic against the disease.

CURRENT AD DRUGS

There is no effective preventative or treatment for AD, with current FDA-approved drugs only temporarily slowing the rate of cognitive decline. Moreover, these AD drugs only mask the disease’s symptoms. To date, all clinical trials involving drug treatment in AD patients have universally failed to provide long-term benefit. AD drugs not only do not get into the brain well, but more importantly they have extreme difficulty getting inside the brain’s neurons (which is where oligomeric Aβ resides as the probable cause of AD memory impairment). NeuroEM’s electromagnetic technology, which directly and uniquely attacks this AD process inside neurons, may represent a treatment in the near future for AD patients.